Identifing biomarkers for early intervention in recurrence of a common cancer
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common human cancers. In 2008, 263,900 patients were recorded worldwide, and the estimated number of deaths due to OSCC was 128,000.
There is only a 50% five-year survival rate for patients with OSCC due to frequent metastases in regional lymph nodes. Early detection OSCC recurrence can dramatically improve patient outcomes. This study identified potential predictive MicroRNA (MiRNA) biomarkers in OSC cancer patients following surgery.
When MiRNA becomes the target of a therapeutic treatment
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy is the most common drug-resistant form of epilepsy in adults. As a result, treatment options are basically limited to surgical resection of the afflicted brain tissue. The most common pathology in the resected tissue is neuronal loss and gliosis, a likely consequence of underlying neuroinflammation and remodelling of the neuronal network.
In effect, major changes in functional and regulatory mechanisms of the local cells is expected to be both a cause and an effect.
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs which control protein levels by binding target mRNAs via Argonaute proteins. By sequencing Argonaute-bound microRNAs from the hippocampus of three rodent epilepsy models, we could identify common microRNAs at each stage of epilepto-genesis.